In this section you can search all our contents throughout the different stages in the history of art in Spain, to find styles such as Baroque, Gothic, Mudejar and many, many more.

Picasso. 'Guernica' Modernism and Avant-garde movements The turn of the century brought new winds of modernity. The aesthetic sensibility of the time was marked by a different, freer attitude towards art and life.


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The role of women in culture

  • Women in Spanish culture.

    Women in Spanish culture.


"The participation and importance of women in the world of culture is growing by the day, as can be seen by the numerous distinctions garnered by women in a range of different fields. ..."

The participation and importance of women in the world of culture is growing by the day, as can be seen by the numerous distinctions garnered by women in a range of different fields. A large number of women have received prizes and awards in all areas of culture and science.

Sculptresses, photographers, painters, choreographers, editors, singers, actresses, writers, film directors, dancers, businesswomen… the profile of women in cultural activities is on the rise.
The feminist studies of the 1970s, designed to revise and reclaim the idea of the female artist, also highlighted the continuing importance of their work and influence throughout history. Some of these women were fundamental to the emergence, development and evolution of artistic movements.

Historical revision
Did you know that the oldest documented work signed by a woman dates from the Middle Ages? This is an illuminated miniature of the Comment on the Apocalypse by Beatus of Liébana, conserved in the cathedral in Girona. And did you know that in various monuments in the town of Toro you'll find mural paintings by the artist Teresa Díez dating from the 14th century?
Various female figures also emerged during the Renaissance and Baroque periods, mainly within artistic families. This is the case of Margarita and Dorotea Macip, the daughters of the painter Juan de Juanes, or Luisa Roldán, the daughter of the sculptor Pedro Roldán, who was the first woman to occupy the post of court sculptress to King Charles II and Philip V. This period reveals various hitherto unknown secrets, such as a portrait of Philip II attributed to Alonso Sánchez Coello, conserved in the Prado Museum, whose true author was later discovered to be the court painter Sofonisba Anguissola.

Subsequent centuries saw the continuing emergence of women creators linked to the world of art and painting: Alejandrina Gessler, Rosario Weiss, Ana de Urrutia, Teresa Nicolau Parody, María Blanchard, Maruja Mallo, Remedios Varo, Ángeles Santos and Juana Francés, to name just a few. However it was with the Spanish political transition and the arrival of democracy that female names began to appear in greater numbers.

The spirit of literature
Women writers also deserve a mention, as with their works they not only carved a niche for themselves within the world of literature, but also contributed to the spread of feminism. Some historic examples include María de Zayas, a key figure in the Spanish Golden Age; Emilia Pardo Bazán, considered one of the great Spanish novelists of the 19th century; Rosalía de Castro, the preeminent author of the movement known as the Galician 'rexurdimento' ('resurgence'); Rosario de Acuña, a free thinker who cultivated all the literary genres; and Carmen de Burgos, the first woman print journalist in a Spanish newspaper.
In the past, there was also no scarcity of outstanding women in the performing arts: from authors such as María Lejárraga, who wrote librettos for Falla, and opera singers such as La Malibrán, famous and admired internationally in her day, through to theatre actresses such as María Guerrero and Margarita Xirgu, who were genuine muses for the authors of their time. There were also dancers such as Tórtola Valencia, whose exotic dances transcended national borders. They are joined by a long list of flamenco singers and dancers, including La Argentinita and Pastora Imperio among many others.

In the field of architecture it is particularly worth mentioning Matilde Ucelay, the first professionally qualified woman architect in Spain. In more recent times there has been a notable presence of women who have performed to outstanding international acclaim in the world of opera: Victoria de los Angeles, Monserrat Caballé, Teresa Berganza….

Little by little, the talent and reputation of all the women who have formed part of Spain's cultural heritage throughout history is finally coming to light.

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